Homeopathy 1    Homeopathy 2 Bild Button pfeil1a colorless Bild Button pfeil1a  Bild uk_flag

A somewhat different view of homeopathy

" When evaluating a therapy is not about objective truths, but only for effectiveness "

As pragmatists looking for a solution to a problem? They make practice tests - they work with experiments. If the work, they are the solution to the problem a little bit closer. The function is the proof. Their law is: " what works - is right. "

As theorists search for the solution of a problem? They make the brain tests - they work with intuition. Their solution is a hypothesis. The future proves it - or not.

Anyone who treats disease successful? Pragmatist or theorist?

Homeopathy is from pragmatists. The term is 250 years old - the roots date back thousands of years. Intelligent people have been and are treated - Nobel laureates - genius - kings - intellectuals - academics - celebrities, etc.. Doubts as to their logical mind is nonsense. 40 years practical experience with homeopathy - especially in the treatment of sports injuries - animals and children - have me convinced of homeopathy. There is no treatment that helps always and in every case - each has its limitations - including homeopathy.

34 topics 1 - 15

homeopathy & medicine - evidence - secret water - astronomy - astrophysics - cosmology - chemical - physics - nuclear physics - quantum physics - 

1. The origins of the universe picture butt arrow

2. Celebrities & homeopathy picture butt arrow

3. PhD Brian Josephson picture butt arrow

4. The big secret water picture butt arrow

5. How operates homeopathy picture butt arrow

6. Origin of the univers picture butt arrow

7. Periodic table picture butt arrow

8. 112 elements picture butt arrow

9. Atomic model of Bohr picture butt arrow

10. PhD Pauli principle picture butt arrow

11. PhD Bose - Bose - Einstein - condensate picture butt arrow

12. The atomic laser picture butt arrow

13. Orders of magnitude picture butt arrow

14. History of optical telescopes picture butt arrow

Quantum physics gives us understanding of the homeopathic effect. Why and how would it work? In the manufacture of homeopathic remedies water as a solvent and a carrier substance is used. Studies on water to prove that it can store information about dissolved substances. Water can transmit it. Little known is that 19 there are stable waters, with 135 subspecies. They have at least 40 properties. There is still no scientific explanation. But nothing changes the fact that it is a fact. Water Bild Button pfeil1a

The whole matter of the universe is composed of fundamental building blocks, the molecules and the 94 naturally occurring atomic species. The sizes are hard to imagine. A drop of water consists of the incredible number of 30 quadrillion - (30 + 24 zeros) molecules, each consisting of two atoms of hydrogen H and one atom of oxygen O, abbreviated as H2 O, are formed.

The function of homeopathy moves in sizes of quantum physics. Therefore, it is only theory to explain. The Greek physicist Dr. Gerasimos Anagnostatos developed a model of what happens in the production of a homeopathic remedy happens. When diluted with water to the water molecules according to their structure, such as hull to determine the active ingredient. When Verschütteln the active particles from the shell surface. To the free agents and the empty shells of water should be new, very specific hull form. Due to the extreme dilution steps would then be in the high potency of these countless billions of specific water sleeves, tailored in accordance with the appropriate starting substance.

Arguments against homeopathy are based on Newton's physics. Then, nature is the sum of its measurable and quantifiable phenomena. Since Einstein, however, matter and energy are two aspects of the same thing (E = m c2). Matter and energy are convertible into each other. Relativity theory and quantum physics have disproved Newton's definition. We are a little bit into the little explored world of the smallest parts of the universe penetrate. To do this we must employ something with physics. This way you can understand what lies behind phenomena, such as homeopathy, may be hidden.

1. The origins of the univers

quarks - leptons - gauge bosons - neutrinos - Higgs boson - super strings

Theories - Experiments - 50 years of Science Video 16:08   Bild Button pfeil1  Video 2:56 Cern Bild Button pfeil1

Sizes : the Atom 10-8 cm - nucleus 10-12 cm in the 19th Century the atoms as the building blocks of the universe, and kept for indivisible. It was believed that the atoms of a positive electric atomic nucleus, protons and neutrons, and a shell of electrons are negatively electric. The core contains the total mass of the atom. The atom is electrically neutral to the outside. The positive nuclear charge zahliges is a multiple of the elementary charge and equal to the negative charge of the electron shell. Core and shell are determined by the electrical forces of attraction between the charges held together equally. Within the shell, the electrons in each of the "shells" arranged.

1911 - Rutherford atomic model "The atom consists of nucleus and electron shells."  1930 -  Nuclear Physics " The atomic nucleus is protons and neutrons. There are five elementary particles: 1 Protons 2nd Neutron 3rd Electrons  4th Myons of cosmic radiation and so far only theoretically proven 5th Neutrinos. "

bild atom rutherford Atom   bild atomkern nucleus  bild myon Myon   bild neutrino

The state of research today. The detection of new mesons and baryons, first in the cosmic radiation, and later with the particle, was an impetus for even smaller particles to seek, from which the hadrons (mesons and baryons) are built. Quarks are considered as the elementary constituents (elementary particles), from which the nucleus blocks protons and neutrons - are. They carry a spin of ½ and are therefore fermions. For example, baryons (eg protons) from three quarks, mesons (eg the pion) each consisting of a quark and an anti-quark.

bild Murray Gell Mann1 Murray Gell - Mann  bild zweig George Zweig

1964 postulated the Caltech - physicist Murray Gell - Mann and his colleague George Zweig of the existence of quarks. The experimental investigation was made of quarks by historically low elastic electron - nucleon - scattering (DIS). References to the existence and the properties of quarks were in the structure functions is found. In the standard model of elementary particle physics include the down - quark, the up - quark, the electron and the electron - neutrino to the first generation of particles. The six different quarks is also referred to as a Quark - Flavors. The names of the quarks and their abbreviations: u = up - down = d - c = charm - strange = s - t = top - b = button Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1

bild quarks 6 bild boson 1 bild quark element particles

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 Kuriose rules define the world of quanta. Many of these phenomena seem common sense to oppose. Physicists disagree, what these symptoms mean. As times objects behave like particles and sometimes like waves - energy package can only be exchanged - objects exist in multiple states simultaneously - properties can be, such as location and speed, while no longer accurately measure - states of distant objects are not explainable way linked. Since quantum physics worked, she had to be accepted. Today it is in physics is no longer away to think. It is the basis of many technologies, electronics and laser optics. Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1

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It is even smaller: Higgs bosons. Today there are six quarks six leptons (electron, electron neutrino, muon, muon - neutrino, tau and the recently discovered tau neutrino with the anti-particle bosons and gluons to the basic building blocks of the universe. Even smaller: see Higgs boson Bild Button pfeil1

2. Celebrities & Homeopathy

Homeopathy comes from scientists, physicians, chemists, not by shamans,faith healer, herb women, or witches. As the discoverer of the cure, the physician and chemist, MD Hahnemann, 1755 - 1843, as the genius of his time was. He is the author of more than 300 separate publications, books, essays, translations and adaptations to medical issues, and said at least 9 languages and dialects. The roots of the new therapy but is already one of the most intelligent scholars of history: Hippocrates 460 - 377 BC He is considered the first, which looked at medicine as a science. He will be 61 specialists - Publications ascribed. From him comes the ' similarity law ': ' Disease is caused by factors, the remedies are similar, and is eliminated by means of which cause similar symptoms. " Most physicians of his time is not accepted. They treated according to the principle of " opposites with opposites cure " (Contraria contraris) The proliferation of Homeopathy> see Tables

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 Celebrities & Homeopathy: British royal family, family of the Tsar, Radetzky, Gandhi, Lincoln, Rockefeller, Goethe, Schumann, Beethoven, Chopin, Paganini, Darwin, Marques, Twain, Shaw, Irving, Salinger, McCartney, Bosch, Doyle, Sir Osler, Bosch, Sir Menuhin ..

Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon   Elizabeth II    Prince Charles      Zar Nikolaus I.     Gandhi        A. Lincoln       Droste - Huelshoff  Rockefeller        Darwin 

bild Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon 1925 Bild elisabeth II bild prince charles2 bild zar-nikolaus 1 Bild gandhi 2 Bild Abraham_Lincoln bild droste-huelshoff Bild rockefeller Bild darwin2

 Goethe           Schumann         Beethoven        Chopin          Paganini           Irving             Doyle            Twain             Salinger

Bild goethe2 bild schumanng robert Bild Beethoven Bild Frederic_Chopin bild paganini-1 Bild washington-irving Bild arthur canon doyle Bild mark twain Bild salinger

Sir Menuhin               Sir McCartney     Sir Harrison      Townshend       Blaire             Clinton                  Marques         Robert Bosch  

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Shaw              Sir Osler 

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My recommentation: “ The Homeopathic Revolution: Famous People and Cultural Heroes Who Chose Homeopathy ” a NEW book by Dana Ullman, MPH

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“Dear Friends of Homeopathy,

Many of you know the various books that I have written on homeopathic medicine since Everybody's Guide to Homeopathic Medicines was first published in 1984.  I have written many other books since then, but my newest work is by far the most important work of my life. This is NOT any "ordinary" book on homeopathy as you shall soon see. I am honored that the foreword to this book was written by Dr. Peter Fisher, the Physician to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, but what is inside the book is even more intriguing and compelling.

This book documents many famous people of the past 200 years who have been known to use and/or advocate for homeopathic medicine. I am not simply talking about "celebrities." In fact, I have already uncovered the following amazing facts (the book contains specific quotes and/or documented stories about each person listed below and his or her experiences with homeopathy): Darwin might not have been healthy enough to have written 'Origin of Species' without the homeopathic and water-cure treatments that he received from Dr. James Manby Gully (according to Darwin's own letters).

Numerous leading conventional physicians and scientists who have had extremely positive things to say about homeopathy include Sir William Osler (the "father of modern medicine"), Emil Adolph von Behring, MD (the "father of immunology"), Charles Frederick Menninger, MD (founder of the Menninger Clinic), August Bier, MD (the "father of spinal anesthesia"), C. Everett Koop, M.D. (former Surgeon General, U.S.), Brian Josephson, PhD. (Nobel Laureate & Cambridge professor).

 At least eleven American Presidents used homeopathic medicines or sponsored legislation to allow homeopathic practice (Lincoln, Tyler, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Harrison, McKinley, Coolidge, Harding, Hoover, & Clinton)...and two British Prime Ministers (Disraeli and Tony Blair).

Many of America's literary greats advocated for and often wrote about homeopathy, including Washington Irving, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Mark Twain... and European greats such as Goethe, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Alfred Tennyson, and George Bernard Shaw...and many modern greats including J.D. Salinger and Gabriel Garcia Marquez.

Numerous sports greats have bragged about their use of homeopathic medicines including David Beckham, Martina Navratilova, Boris Becker, and many more.

Many world-class musicians have greatly appreciated homeopathy including Ludwig van Beethoven, Robert Schumann, Frédéric Chopin, Sir Yehudi Menuhin, Cher, Tina Turner, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, Pete Townshend, Annie Lennox, Bob Weir, Paul Rodgers, Axl Rose, Moby, Jon Faddis, and Dizzy Gillespie.

Numerous movie and TV celebrities have benefited from homeopathy, including early stars such as Sarah Bernhardt, Douglas Fairbanks, Jr., Marlene Dietrich and John Wayne and some of the modern-day stars, including Catherine Zeta-Jones, Lesley Ann Warren, Pamela Anderson, Jane Seymour, Suzanne Somers, Lindsay Wagner, Michael York, Dr. Phil and Robin McGraw, Priscilla & Lisa Marie Presley, Jennifer Aniston, Jade Jagger, Tobey Maguire, and Orlando Bloom.  For Homeopathy, Dana Ullman, MPH

Bild john wayne Bild douglas fairbanks Bild marlene dietrich1 Bild boris becker Bild jane fonda Bild Zeta-Johns Bild anni lennox

Bild michael_fox Bild jennifer aniston Bild jane_seymour Bild toby maguire Bild whoopi goldberg Bild karl lagerfeld Bild tina-turner Bild cher

Bild paul rogers Bild david beckham1 bild priscilla_lisa_elvis_large bild nelly furtado Bild nick-nolte bild grace-kelly Bild nadia sawalha bild sting

As before, however, particularly in the United States from the orthodox medicine and the pharmaceutical industry fought. One of the main arguments of the opponents of homeopathy is that from a dilution of D 23, a number with 23 zeros - no molecules of the raw material more identifiable and thus no effects were possible, because where is NOTHING - NOTHING can also act.

3. Dr. Brian Josephson

Bild Dr. Brian Josephson Bild Button pfeil1 Prof. Dr. Brian D. Josephson, Nobel Prize in Physics 1973 bild benveniste Dr. Benveniste

Professor Brian Josephson is a British physicist who won a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 for work that he had completed at the youthful age of 22 years old. He is currently a professor at the University of Cambridge where he is the head of the mind-matter unification project in the Theory of Condensed Matter research group. Responding to an article in the New Scientist (October 18, 1997), he wrote:

“ Regarding your comments on claims made for homeopathy: criticisms centered around the vanishingly small number of solute molecules present in a solution after it has been repeatedly diluted are beside the point, since advocates of homeopathic remedies attribute their effects not to molecules present in the water, but to modifications of the water's structure. Simple-minded analysis may suggest that water, being a fluid, cannot have a structure of the kind that such a picture would demand. But cases such as that of liquid crystals, which while flowing like an ordinary fluid can maintain an ordered structure over macroscopic distances, show the limitations of such ways of thinking. There have not, to the best of my knowledge, been any refutations of homeopathy that remain valid after this particular point is taken into account. A related topic is the phenomenon, claimed by Jacques Benveniste's colleague Yolène Thomas and by others to be well established experimentally, known as "memory of water". If valid, this would be of greater significance than homeopathy itself, and it attests to the limited vision of the modern scientific community that, far from hastening to test such claims, the only response has been to dismiss them out of hand”.

Josephson’s remarks on the structure of water have been confirmed by more recent research.   Find out the details about new scientific research that has confirmed the biological activity and the clinical efficacy of homeopathic medicines, as well as which other leading physicians, scientists, and cultural heroes have used and/or appreciated homeopathic medicines in Dana Ullman`s Homeopathy Revolution: Why Famous People and Cultural Heroes Choose Homeopathy (available October 2007; published by North Atlantic Books and Random House).  See a copy of the Table of Contents, a sample chapter on Literary Greats, and a series of supportive quotes for the book from professors at Harvard, Stanford, Georgetown, and others at Bild Button pfeil1

This notice by Dr. Josephson on water as a carrier of information, was by the latest research findings corroborated. Water offers many secrets, such as those researching ghosts Schauberger, Grander, Emoto - came on the track.

4. The big secret water - Schauberger - Grander - Dr. Emoto

Waters are distinguished by different: crystalline structures, clusters, micro-cavities and electrical charge. You Save electromagnetic vibrations and react differently to the sound - and light frequencies.

The various waters Natural water from springs, rivers and lakes in a natural, unpolluted environment, is crystalline structured water with microscopic cavities. The electron shells of these crystalline structures are electrically balanced, neutral. This water moves in micro-rotating spirals forward. Water management is unstructured water, charged with chemical and mechanical energy and information - chlorine, fluorine, pumps, filters, pressure pipes. The high pressure in the network management, in addition to the crystalline structure and the micro-cavities, including an electron in the outer shell electrons are lost. It is electrically positive for organisms in a biologically dead water. Only a few meters under pressure through a pipe pressed, it loses its natural ability to move around in micro-rotating spirals. The outer electrons are abstreift what the structure and vitality of the water kills.

Biological organisms in water, such as cell water or fruit water, is always lively, crystalline geklustertes, energetically and biologically active, negatively electrically charged water as long as the organism is healthy and in balance is.

Bild schauberger1 Schauberger Bild Button pfeil1 Video Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Buch schauberger en 1 Bild Buch schauberger en 2 Bild Buch schauberger en 3 Bild Buch Schauberger en 4 Bild Buch Schauberger en 5

Bild grander Grander Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 video  Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Grander wassertropfen Waterdrop bevore / after contact with Grander  Water

  Bild emoto Dr. Emoto Bild Button pfeil1  Impressive images and videos of various water structures, by Dr. Emoto Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1

Bild emoto 1 Danke  "thank you"                   Bild emoto 2 beethofen Beethoven s "Pastorale"      Bild emoto 3 heavymetal Heavy metal

Bild emoto 4 elvis heartbreak hotel Heartbreak Hotel            Bild emoto 5 heilende musik hado Alan Roubik                   Bild emoto 6 lourdes Lourdes, France

Bild emoto 7 ich krank ich bring dich um  kill you                      Bild emoto 8 tu es Command                  Bild emoto 9 lass es uns tun " Let us do ”

Bild emoto5 biwako_lake  biwako lake                 Bild emoto8 hitlerHitler “                    Bild Emoto1Sanbu-ichi Yusui Spring water sanbu ichi yusi

Bild emoto3 antarctic antarctic                     Bild Emoto2 shimanto_river shimano river

The kirlian photography makes the various energies of homeopathic preparations visible

Bild Medizin hoeop Fotod Kirlian  Bild Kirlian Kirlian

5. How does homeopathy ? picture butt arrow

Basically: It affects the immune system, making the organism itself helps. It is provable.

A. The homeopathic resources heals itself.

B. extreme dilution of minerals - plants - liquids - gases - organic matter - and their transfer to carriers, modify their physical properties into Konträre. These changes are the cause, effect and stimulate the immune system of patients. This causes the organism healing. He heals itself - not the therapist or the homeopathically prepared the drug.

C. Why the dilution process causes these effects and what within the micro - the nuclear area or even smaller structures of the substances used happens, it only theoretically be explained, since the previous measurement instruments are not sufficient to make it visible.

But this is basically in the natural sciences the valid procedures. The laws of physics are theories, which still partly controversial and will remain. This applies to issues such as: light - gravity - building a nuclear - including relativity theory There are more or less accepted thinking models, not optically visible evidence.

If we look at the possibilities of visual evidence and learn their limits. In addition, we look at the history around Micro - and macrocosm and the development of their devices.

 PhD Albert Einstein   1879 - 1955 Nobelprice 1921 picture butt arrow

" It is absolutely possible that beyond the perception of our sense unsuspected hidden worlds "

At all stages of human history have always been many sizes of the science of the conviction that precisely the wisdom of their time last final possess and all questions were answered humanity or at least very briefly before, this proved to be resolved. The respective world view and its scientific basis, however, surprisingly, had repeatedly revised. Proponents of new ideas, which is incorrect views aufdeckten were fixed by the bank and almost all mocked, threatened, fought, and often ruined literally to death.

New findings have in the last 500 years, the world changed, not only for the better. Again and again it turned out that it undreamt - for IMPOSSIBLES undetected for long existed. It always seems only a matter of time, technical development and the presence of curious and courageous men and women to advance into new dimensions and old to jettison.

 PhD . phil. Arthur Schopenhauer 1788 1860 picture butt arrow

" Each problem through its appreciation to 3 stages: In the first it is ridiculed, fought in the Second and Third in the course, it is considered "

Two areas of science illustrate this: the conquest of the macro - and the microcosm. Here, by religion and pseudo science theories thousands of years up to the blood defended, especially the Christian churches. It was reminiscent of the Inquisition, the new scientific theories as heresy appointed, mostly with condemnation of the representative ended. Galileo had to pretend to life and limb to save.

6. Origin of the Universe - theories - quantum physics  

 Video 9:37 BBC-Horizon-The Six Billion Dollar Experiment Bild Button pfeil1a

Standard Model of particle physics Matter lat = "materialists" = substance, "notes" space "and has a" weight. "The modern physics called Matter everything from elementary fermions is constructed. In the standard model of particle physics, these are the quarks and leptons. protons and neutrons consist of quarks and electrons to form atoms, which in turn can form molecules. Electromagnetic radiation such as photons and gluons are not considered material. We are here in order of magnitude, unimaginably small. And we expected even smaller particles, Tau neutrinos and Higgs bosons.

Anyone who deals with quantum physics, is different from all known and logical laws of classical physics must resolve in the quantum world, things seem to blur. Light can be used as a particle or a wave occur, location and speed can not be precisely measured simultaneously arbitrarily removed strange particles can be folded manner. The rules of the quantum world are leading to new phenomena and states of matter. In the world of elementary particles there are the laws for us are unimaginable. Quantum physics deals with the properties of subatomic particles (elementary particles) and assumes that energy is not continuous, but package wise, ie in the form of quantum exists. Knowledge of nuclear physics is the understanding of quantum physics is essential

The particles - Adventure: an interactive tour of quarks, neutrinos, antimatter, extra dimensions, dark matter, particle accelerators and detectors: Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

The various subatomic particles vary in terms of their mass. While the photons, the basis of the electromagnetic force and the gluons, the basis of the strong force, have no mass, weigh the Z - and W - particles as much as 80 protons and an atomic nucleus. The top quark, is 350,000 times heavier than an electron. Why is the mass of the particle so different, according to the standard theory is unknown. String theory is hoped that, to explain them. But the standard model explains after Peter Higgs theory of how they acquire their mass, namely through the Intreaktion with the Higgs boson. The stronger the interaction, the greater the mass.

A few years ago is the Tevatron - Particle Accelerator of the Fermilab / USA the first evidence for the theory, by standard theory predicted and indirectly by experimental evidence known subatomic particles, called tau neutrino found. Tau neutrino was the penultimate date has not yet been empirically proven "building blocks of matter" and represents the third type of neutrino dar. What remains now only the proof of the Higgs boson. Following the standard theory of six quarks (up, down, strane, charm, top and bottom), six leptons (electron, electron - neutrino, muon, muon - neutrino, tau and the recently discovered tau neutrino) with the corresponding anti-particles, the bosons and gluons to the basic building blocks of the universe Bild Button pfeil1a

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video 10:33 The Large Hadron Collider  Bild Button pfeil1a video16:08  CERN: 50 years of Science Bild Button pfeil1a

Between Fermilab and CERN / USA, Switzerland, there is a race of who first discovered the last particle. Scientists, as part of the ALEPH experiment - the predictions of standard theory to examine with the Large Electron Positron LEP accelerator work, have reported that they had in their experiments may be a first indication of the Higgs boson is found. Evidence because of its extreme volatility is difficult to obtain. There is only virtual and decays before it could be observed. Evidence can the Higgs boson is only indirectly, if the collision very quickly accelerated particles requires so much energy that a Higgs boson and its existence is due to the combination of particles, in which it decays, recognizable is.  Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a Bild Button pfeil1a

What is Fermilab? Bild Button pfeil1a What is Particle Physics? Bild Button pfeil1a Physics at Fermilab  Bild Button pfeil1a Fermilab's Chain of Accelerators Bild Button pfeil1a The CDF experiment Bild Button pfeil1a

Demokrit           Aristoteles           Dalton                Bohr                 Rutherford            Newton                 Planck

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Einstein                    de Broglie          Schroedinger         Schroedingers Imation         Heisenberg              Sir Thomson

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 The atomic theory of Democritus Since the beginning of the history of mankind there have been issues in which the ghost left. What is the material world? Are there one or many primary matter? Matter is always further divisible or is there at the end slightly smaller, no longer part Bares? Such Indivisible, Greek atomon led Democritus 500 years BC as the first in the Western natural philosophy. He divided the room into the full and empty. The indivisible, tiny and invisible to the eye elements of the cosmos are the atoms. These are distinguished by the shape and size. By nature they are unmoved.

Movements only at - and bounce off the atoms themselves. The movement of atoms is eternal. From it, all phenomena in the world. There is no mixing, just link and separation of the atoms themselves. Due to the different size of the atoms have a different gravity. Democritus explained the nature of the fire, which due to the ease upward moves. This doctrine fell into oblivion. In its place came the theory of Aristotle, the four primary matter of fire, water, air and earth.

Only towards the end of the 18th Century, when the scientist began to different substances such as Water systematically dismantle and re-assemble, Democritus was the idea of atoms and revived this final. Dalton discovered the law of 'constant proportions': you synthesise a substance from two or more different components, so these are always the same masses - and volume ratio. To 18 grams of water from the 'elements' produce hydrogen and oxygen, you need two volumes of hydrogen to one volume of oxygen or exactly two grams of hydrogen and sixteen grams of oxygen, excess amounts of one of the two elements are not synthesized. "

These analogue experiments in many findings could be confirmed without artificial assumptions, the only way to explain: "there are some raw materials - elements - such as hydrogen, oxygen - the smallest units (atoms) compounds have a very zahliges multiples of the mass of the lightest atom, the Hydrogen atoms are. These 'atoms' join together across zahligen conditions' molecules'. For the atomic mass of an element relative to the mass of the hydrogen atom, one has the slightly later imprecise term 'atomic weight' was introduced. "

The thesis: " phenomena which, in contrast to current physics, can not exist " is no longer tenable.

Max Planck and Albert Einstein initiated the beginning of the 20th Century, a revolution of the physical world of Newton A. Did the scientists previously believed that the same nature with a giant clockwork determined sequences, they were now confronted, that basic operations - such as the emission of light quanta, or the decay of atoms - made entirely coincidental.

Bild atom struc bild atom nucleon bild quanten 1

 After the atom Bohr model of the electrons orbit like planets around the atomic nucleus. In quantum physics, the picture changes dramatically: electrons are no longer defined particles with a defined location and velocity, but appear as a "wave function" as a complex probability distribution in appearance. The computer graphic shows the wave function of an electron in a hydrogen atom. Atomic electrons can occupy different energy states. The higher their energy, the more complicated the corresponding wave function. The figure corresponds to an electron in quantum state n1 = 6, n2 = 7, m = 2

"I think we can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics. It should be possible, do not continually ask, why is it so? ", As it lost only in a blind alley from which nobody has found out. No one knows why it is so. "Richard Feynman (1918-1988), Nobel Prize for Physics in 1965

"Quantum mechanics, that mysterious, confusing science. None of us really understands it, but we know how to apply them. "Murray Gell-Mann (1980), Nobel Laureate in physics in 1969

"In quantum mechanics it is not about an arbitrary renunciation of a more detailed analysis of the phenomenon of atom, but with the knowledge that such an analysis, in principle, is excluded." Niels Bohr (1885-1962), one of the founders of quantum physics, Nobel Laureate 1922

Strange rules define the quantum world - the rules associated with our everyday experience have only little in common. But no matter how exotic the quantum world may be, it has many technologies of our daily life possible - and further, even more incredible applications are in sight. In the quantum world is strange: Given objects times behave like particles and sometimes like waves, and since energy can only be exchanged or package, because there are objects in several states simultaneously, as can features such as location and speed are no longer exactly the same time measure and there are states of distant objects on ghostly manner.

Many of these phenomena seem common sense to oppose. And even the experts can not agree what these phenomena for our understanding of the reality mean. But quantum physics works: It now pervades the whole of physics, and almost all modern technologies. It not only describes the behavior of the smallest particles correctly, even the modern electronics or optics, the laser would be unthinkable without them. And with the so-called quantum computers are more exciting applications in the development

video 2:56 Quarks: Inside the Atom  CERN  Bild Button pfeil1  Video 4:23  Pulsars & Neutron Stars  Bild Button pfeil1  video 7:47   Quasars Bild Button pfeil1  video 4:34  Neutrinos Bild Button pfeil1

7. Periodic Table - 94 Natural - 18 other elements = 112  Bild Button pfeil1

  The atoms are taken in the periodic table of elements together. The " Periodic Table " refers only to atoms in the electrically neutral state. In it there are subdivisions to the differences between stable and unstable (radioactive) elements. 80 stable elements occur in nature

Beginning of the 19th Century, Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner first time a connection between the atomic mass and chemical properties of individual elements. 1863 was John Newland one after table ordered atomic masses of elements in eight groups (law of octaves) on. The periodic table itself was 1869 almost simultaneously and independently by Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (1834-1907) and Lothar Meyer (1830-1895) established. It also ordered them the chemical elements according to increasing atomic masses, while elements with similar properties (number of valence electrons) among themselves ordered.

Bild dobereiner Dobereiner Bild Button pfeil1  bild newlands Newland Bild Button pfeil1 bild mendelejew Mendeleev Bild Button pfeil1   bild meyer Meyer Bild Button pfeil1

 Most elements were in the 19th Century discovered and scientifically described. At the beginning of the 20th Century, only ten of the natural elements unknown. Since then, especially difficult to access, often radioactive elements. Many of these elements are not in nature and are the product of artificial nuclear fusion processes. Radioactive elements are only bismuth, thorium and uranium in large quantities in nature exists. Their half times in the magnitude of the age of the earth. All other radioactive elements are up to an isotope of plutonium either intermediate decay products of the four radioactive decay series, such as radium or are rare in natural nuclear reactions or by spontaneous fission of uranium and thorium. Elements with atomic numbers over 94 can only be manufactured, although they are in the element synthesis in supernova arise, due to its short half times still no trace of them found in nature. Bild Button pfeil1

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8. Element 112 Copernicum - CP Bild Button pfeil1a

 Nuclear scientist in Darmstadt create new elements, instead of six. The GSI Helmholtz center operates a worldwide unique accelerator facility for heavy ions. Here are ion beams of all elements up to uranium - the heaviest naturally occurring element - in each load condition and prepare to bring nearly the speed of light. The plant can also beams of radioactive nuclei produced and accelerated.

The Helmholtz Association is equipped with its 16 research centers and an annual budget of around 2.8 billion euros, Germany's largest scientific organization. It operates advanced research in six research areas: Energy - Earth and Environment - Health - Key Technologies - Structure of Matter - Transport and Space

Prof. Dr. Hermann von Helmholtz Bild Button pfeil1a  GSI  Element 112 Copernicum CP Nicolaus Copernicus Prof. Dr. Sigurd Hofmann Bild Button pfeil1a

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UNILAC                                  SIS Schwerionen

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1. picture The UNILAC building - a 120 m long linear accelerator - brings the ions on the road and accelerates to 20 percent of the speed of light.

2. picture SIS - Heavy Ion Synchrotron - In the heavy ion synchrotron SIS, the ion beam in a few hundred thousand cycles further accelerated to 90 percent of the speed of light

3. picture ISR - Experimental Storage Ring - In the experimental storage ring ESR may previously accelerated - stable or radioactive - ions are stored. While you perform a few million to several billion revolutions at a constant high speed.

The atomic scientists in Darmstadt have the official confirmation by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) get it again a new element discovered. So far they found for element Bohrium 107, Hassium for element 108, for Meitnerium element 109, Darmstadtium for element 110 and element Roentgenium for 111th After elements of the periodic table according to N. Bohr, the state of Hesse, Lise Meitner, the city of Darmstadt and was named X-ray, is now currently the worst - officially recognized element on earth - in honor of the astronomer Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) on the name "Copernicium" with the symbol " Cp "be baptized. The nuclei of Copernicium are 277 times heavier than hydrogen. For a fraction of a second was created by fusion in the shelling of a lead foil with zinc ions. At the GSI experiments, the discovery of element 112 leading scientists, 21 were from Germany, Finland, Russia and Slovakia participated.

The award for the element names competent international association IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the recognition on 10 June 2009 the Head of the discovery team, Dr. Sigurd Hofmann, forthwith. Already in 1996, the international team of researchers led by Professor Sigurd Hofmann of GSI accelerator at the Helmholtz Center the first time an atom of element 112 produced. A second atom they were able to demonstrate in 2000. In subsequent experiments in the accelerator laboratory RIKEN in Japan have been more atoms of element 112 demonstrated that GSI-discovery undoubtedly confirmed.

The significance of the number 112th It takes ions. Ions are atoms, where a portion of the electron cloud has been removed and therefore are electrically charged. Such charged ions in electric and magnetic fields to a bundled beam and high speeds.

For the production of element 112, scientists shoot zinc electrically charged atoms, or zinc ions, with the 120-meter-long particle accelerator at GSI a foil made of lead. Through nuclear fusion, the two nuclei of the elements zinc and lead to an atomic nucleus of the new element. It owns the so-called atomic number 112, hence the provisional name "element 112". It arises from the sum of the atomic numbers of the two main elements: zinc, the atomic number 30, atomic number lead the 82nd The atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus are located. In addition to the protons are located in the nucleus or neutrons, for the classification of the element, however, play no role. Orbits the nucleus of 112 electrons, the chemical properties of the new element determined.

9.The atomic model of Bohr Bild Button pfeil1

1913 Niels Bohr formulated his atomic model in analogy to the structure of our planetary system. Accordingly, all the electrons in circular orbits around the nucleus to move around. His model took into account the first time the different energy states of the electric railways (= electron shells). The base material for his reflections, he had in the investigation of the hydrogen atom is collected. According to these findings Bohr formulated the following theoretical principles:

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 1. An electron can only refer to specific, discrete Kreisbahnen residents. These discrete circular paths are also called energy levels. The tracks are arranged concentrically around the nucleus arranged. Each track comes with a letter (K, L, M, ...) called.

 2nd For each track, on which the electron orbits the nucleus, the electron has a certain energy. On the K - shell, the nucleus is closest, is the electron energy at the least. For the electron to an outer rail is to get his energy must be fed. The energy of an electron should not accept values that are at a point between the permitted railways would bring. 

 3.  If the electron in the innermost track, and the lowest energy, so is the atom in the ground state. Through the injection of the electron energy can be applied to a larger jump rail and a higher energy state to accept that it is driven mode. 

 4.  If the electron from an excited state to a more inside track jumps, a defined amount of energy released in the form of a light quantum is emitted. The amount of energy equal to the difference of the energies of the higher and lower energy state.

Shorter nominated:  1. The electron moves in circular paths with discrete energies En for the proton. 

2nd The angular momentum train Ln zahliges is a multiple of h / 2π: Ln = nh/2π 3rd The observed Spekral lines correspond to the electron jumps from a train n2 to n1 a train, while a photon with the energy EN2 - EN1 and the wavelength λ = hc / (E2 - E1) is emitted.

1911 Rutherford experiments paved the way for a detailed understanding of the structure of atoms and chemical elements that make up the whole matter of the universe is made up of: Each element has an atomic number Z of its corresponding number of positively charged protons in the nucleus and an equally large number of negatively charged electrons in the 'shell (Z = 1 for hydrogen, Z = 2 for helium ... Z = 92 for the heaviest element, uranium). The electrical attraction between protons and electrons holds the atom together; outwardly appears the atom is electrically neutral. In addition to the fixed number of protons Z, the atomic nucleus of an element with atomic number Z of a variable number of neutrons contained, so that its mass can be variable - isotopes. What is happening with the electrons?

The atomic model of Bohr led directly to quantum mechanics. Based on the observation that the elementary particles in some experiments the properties of particles in another one of the waves which led Heisenberg, de Broglie, Schrödinger Born and the concept of matter waves. From Schrödinger's wave equation for the electron in the hydrogen atom were now the 'gequantelten' Bohr energy - but this time as the exact solutions of a mathematical differential equation. Unlike the exactly solvable hydrogen atom with its two particles, the energy states in atoms with multiple electrons can only be determined imprecisely. Yet here too, in all cases a striking consistency of the quantum - mechanical theory with observations, if you do this from the quantum mechanics derived 'Pauli principle' into account: in each of the possible discrete energy shells of electrons may have a very specific number of electrons are located. Is a bowl of 'occupied', then a subsequent electron into the next bowl with a smaller binding energy go.

10. Prof. Dr. Wolfgang J. Pauli - 1900 - 1958 “ Pauli Principle “ Bild Button pfeil1a

bild Pauli nobelprize bild buch pauli bild buch pauli 2 bild einstein pauli Einstein & Pauli

At the age of 19. began his studies in physics, with 21 years he earned his doctorate in Munich and at 23 he became a professor in Hamburg. He has published 93 Article and 11 books, but more than 2,000 scientific letters. Einstein, Commentary on the Book of Pauli "Theory of Relativity": "Who this mature and large-scale works studied, does not believe that the author is a man of twenty-one years. You do not know what we most admire is the psychological understanding of the idea of development, security of mathematical deduction, the profound physical view, the balance sheets of systematic presentation, the literature knowledge, the factual completeness, the safety of the critics. "Max Born:" I knew since the time because he is my assistant in Göttingen was that he was a genius, comparable only with Einstein himself, so that he purely scientific, perhaps even greater than Einstein, albeit a very different perspective of person who, in my view, Einstein's size is not reached. "

Pauli was co-founder of CERN. 1930, at age 30, he said the existence of a particle requires the existence of only 25 years later has been confirmed. Enrico Fermi later called it "little neutron" neutrino. What brought him to the idea? Under the former theory happens during beta decay following a neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton and electron. Since the proton in the nucleus and remains little or no recoil absorbs energy, the electron would need all the energy and have weggeschleudert be. It is noted that the energy spectrum for electrons from beta decays to measure, as follows:

bild pauli neutrino bild fermi bild fermi dirac statistik Prof. Dr. Fermi  bild chadwick Prof. Dr. Cadwick

As you can see, there is a continuous energy distribution of electrons, not just a discrete value. How can that be? The energy should be retained but Pauli's idea: There must be another part of his existence. He called it neutron. 1932 Chadwick discovered the electric uncharged core component. 1935 Enrico Fermi developed the theory of beta decay and identified the other particles involved neutrino. Bild Button pfeil1a

The Atom - and molecular physics is not finished 'classic' science. Especially in recent decades, spectacular discoveries were due to the large number of Nobel Prizes in this time is confirmed. Here was the development of lasers, the stimulated, parallel emission of light, certainly the most successful, with major applications in numerous fields such as engineering, metrology, distance determination, frequency standards, data storage, reproduction, health and medicine.

With such lasers, one is now in the process of chemical reactions to ultra-short time ranges of up to 10-15 s to investigate. Using sophisticated methods ( 'Laser cooling'), we succeeded in the smallest atoms to save space and to close to 0 Kelvin cool, with a new coherent state of matter was produced Bose - Einstein - condensation, to a wide variety of applications, eg 'Atom lasers' may result.

With the help of new microscopes (scanning tunneling microscopy, force microscopy), it was possible individual atoms to make and manipulate, with the future prospect of data at the atomic scale. The quantum mechanics formerly largely in the form of 'thought experiments' fantastic predicted properties of matter waves were now on a broad front experimentally realized. 'Entangled' atomic states are already in initial trials as applied quantum cryptography to secure data.

11. Prof. Dr. Bose - Boson

Satyendranath Bose         Bose - Einstein - condensate (BEC)                                  Bose - Einstein - Statistics

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Satyendranath Bose * 1894 in Calcutta, † 1974, Indian physicist who made important contributions to mathematical and statistical physics provided. In particular, his collaboration with Albert Einstein on the gas of electromagnetic radiation have been recognized. A short article on the quantum statistics of photons, which he at the age of 27 years wrote when he was at the University of Dhaka worked, caught the attention of Albert Einstein. Einstein took the idea and turned it on atoms. Thus he said the existence of the so-called Bose - Einstein - ahead of condensates.

He claimed that when these particles is not only possible that two or more occupy the same state, but that this situation is even more preferable. Einstein drew the conclusion that at a certain temperature all the bosons of a system to occupy the ground state when the quantum mechanical wave functions of the particles begin to overlap. This has the consequence that the microcosm of the macroscopic properties of quantum mechanics shows

In the experiment, the Bose - Einstein - condensate for the first time in 1995 by an American group in Bolder observed. But the prediction of the phenomenon was much earlier: it dates from the year 1924 - so it has more than 70 years before this theory could be confirmed. Bose and Einstein established the theoretical foundations. Meanwhile, it is more than one group, only three of them in Germany, succeeded in this new Materieart in the laboratory. Bose was an article about the statistical distribution of particles with integer spin out today after he called bosons.

The Bose - Einstein - condensate (BEC) is an extreme physical state of a system of indistinguishable particles, where the overwhelming proportion of the particles in the same quantum state. This is only possible if the particles are bosons and therefore the Bose Einstein statistics subject. Bose Einstein condensates are macroscopic quantum objects, in which the individual bosons are completely delocalized. The probability of each boson, there at a certain point level, is everywhere the same within the condensate. The state can therefore be replaced by a single wave function will be described. This results in characteristics such as Suprafluidität, superconductivity or consistency over macroscopic distances. The latter allows interference experiments with Bose Einstein condensates and the manufacture of an atom laser, which is controlled by Auskoppelung a portion of matter waves of the condensate is holding the event can obtain

The Bose Einstein statistics, a distribution in quantum statistics. It describes the mean occupation number \ n durable (E) \ rangle of a quantum state of energy E in thermodynamic equilibrium, at absolute temperature T for identical bosons as particles vacant - it is analogous to the Fermi - Dirac - Statistics, when instead of bosons, fermions be considered.

 Bosons are in the standard model of particle physics all the particles, which possess very zahligen spin. These include: 1. among the elementary particles: the gauge bosons as mediators of fundamental forces 2nd among the composite particles, all atomic nuclei with even number of nucleons and 3 the phonons It is not a real particle, such as an atom or an electron, but a bound state or a combination of a solid particle. Nevertheless, such quasi-particles are quite typical particle properties, especially effective mass, energy, quasi - momentum, spin, wavelength, and (discrete) excitation spectra. Quasi particles can scatter each other, for example, and energy and momentum exchange

When a cloud of atoms cooled even further than normal laser cooling methods possible, opened up a world of new physical phenomena. When the mutual distance of the particle with its wavelength is comparable to apply new rules allowed the atoms previously regarded as separate particles, so they lose their individuality and go completely in the totality of all the atoms of the cloud. One then speaks of a coherent many-particle system. Bosons are aiming at extremely low temperatures all in the same quantum state. For these particles had Satyendra Bose and Albert Einstein in the 20s predicted that the transition to a coherent many-body system occur very suddenly and, similar to a classical phase transition, from a change in the macroscopic properties should be accompanied. In 1995 this was Bose - Einstein - condensing the first time - after nearly twenty years of arduous preparatory work - from three American groups for the metal atoms of rubidium, lithium and sodium can be observed.

12. The atom laser  Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1

 What is an atom laser? The basis for an atom laser is the Bose - Einstein - condensate. It thus has an atomic cloud, the 10 million times colder than the universe, and the dramatic of all natural substances in various states of aggregation are different: all atoms in it have become one giant super atom. You can use this unit with a single wave function describe. With a magnetic cage will be kept in one place. Let these waves can escape this cage, so that they can continue to proliferate, and a matter wave beam results. For this purpose you drill with a radio blasting a hole in the magnetic cage and the gravity wave is pulled down, forming a 2 mm-long beam matter. This has very strong similarity with a light beam of a laser, so it is referred to as atom lasers. The only difference is the matter waves instead of light waves

Atom laser optics and vacuum pump              laser diodes vacuum apparatus                          Ways of atoms

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 Left: atom laser with Auskoppel mechanisms: Number 1 o'clock-3 o'clock are pulsed, 2 is continuous, 4 or less continuously.  Bild Button pfeil1

bild bose Atom_laser bild bose Atom_laser dichte Density distribution of the interference of two atom laser beams

 In the case of Bose Einstein condensation is used two ways to cool atoms to the laser cooling and evaporative cooling, also called evaporation cooling. The laser cooling is based on the idea of atoms with laser beams abzubremsen by the light atoms figuratively speaking the opposite of their direction of motion puts a bump. More specifically, laser cooling experienced when interacting with the laser field due to the Doppler effect, a speed-dependent force. This phenomenon is used to set the atoms in an arrangement of six opposing laser beams to about 100 micro-Kelvin to cool. An additional scale, weak magnetic field succeeds, the atoms in laser light to hold.

For the evaporation cooling there is a vivid picture of everyday life: the cooling of a cup of hot coffee. The blow off steam of the coffee is the coffee to cool. The same thing with the atom: we removed the hottest by continuously lowering the trap potential. The remaining case in the remaining atoms by elastic collisions strive again to the thermal equilibrium, which is then at a lower temperature. Thus, temperatures of a millionth of a Kelvin above absolute zero temperature can reach

The mechanism means Auskoppel vividly, the condensate from the magnetic case to escape. One can imagine the cigar, with a length of 1 / 10 mm and a radius of 1 / 100 mm and this is now controlled from the trap to escape. There are various mechanisms for Auskoppel atom laser. Basically it is always a question of the condensate atoms from a magnetically trapped state into a magnetically trapped state überzuführen not. When pulsed, the procedure can be reached by short radiofrequency pulses, so that a portion of the potential traps the atoms no longer felt.

Through multiple irradiation succeeds, a Pulszug coherent matter waves to produce by the gravitational process. To the atoms in Auskoppeln addressed to speed there is an optical laser field. This creates a pulse on the atoms, when they are not caught in the state be transferred. A continuous atom laser beam as in the Munich experiment can be created through a radio frequency field over a longer period is received. This makes it possible to extract the condensate atoms locally. As with the other method, the atoms are then accelerated by gravity. Since the smallest disturbances in the magnetic field (eg electrical equipment), the atomic flux may interrupt a shield from a certain metal built, all the Noise from the environment to avoid. Figuratively speaking, this means that the condensate can keep so quiet that it is the invisible opening in the event there. This achieves a directed beam of a length of more than two millimeters, and you can locate leak.

The secrets to building the smallest parts of the universe are not solved long. The incredible small size is a major problem.

13. Orders of magnitude (length) Bild Button pfeil1

Micrometer micron 10-6 m = 0,000.001 m

Nanometer nm 10 p.m. to 9 p.m. The smallest m with a conventional light microscope recognizable structures are about 200 - 500 nm in size. For the investigation of structures below this size are used mostly scanning electron microscopes, scanning tunneling microscopes, atomic force microscopes. With STED - microscopy and transmission electron microscopy are now also resolutions to 20 nm has been achieved.

Pikometer pm 10 a.m. to 12 a.m. m. The hydrogen atom was the smallest atomic unit of an atomic radius of 37 pm. Large atoms have radii greater than 200 pm. 100 pm correspond to an Ångström. The wavelength of gamma radiation is given in pm.

Femtometer fm 10-15 m Formerly Fermi also named after the Italian physicist Enrico Fermi. Nucleus radii are indicated in Femtometern (size: 10 fm). Protons and neutrons have a diameter of about 1.6 fm. The Fermi in Germany is not a legal unit of measurement.

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Kuriose nuclei: Some atomic nuclei have exotic particles, which from the central composite and leave a cloud form. The sets are like a halo or "halo" around the trunk core. Such a halo can be found in the beryllium 11, a specific isotope of the metal beryllium. In this case, the halo of a single neutron formed. Scientists at the Institute for Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg - University Mainz, it is now managed for the first time, this one - Neutron - Halo with the help of a laser to precisely measure and determine the extension of the veil picture butt arrow

14. History of optical telescopes Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1 Bild Button pfeil1

 video 11:55 Bild Button pfeil1a Optical telescopes - visible light Bild Button pfeil1a SCIENCE & ISLAM 1/6 - 10:06  Bild Button pfeil1a 2/6 - 10:00 Bild Button pfeil1a 3/6 - 10:00 Bild Button pfeil1a 4/6 - 10:00 Bild Button pfeil1a 5/6 - 10:00 Bild Button pfeil1a 6/6 -9:59 Bild Button pfeil1a

The manufacture and properties of lenses were known since the time of the Greeks. Islamic scholars such as the arabic physician Alhazen call Ibn al-Haytham 965 - 1040 - made important contributions to the study of optics. Llenses were not introduced to Europe until around the 13th century. By 1300, the first eyeglasses were available in cities such as Venice and Florence, and advances in lens making and polishing soon followed. The tools for making a telescope were therefore available but, for reasons that are not clear, the invention of the telescope had to wait.

The telescope first appeared in the Netherlands. In October 1608, the national government in The Hague discussed a patent application for a device that aided " seeing faraway things as though nearby." It consisted of a convex and concave lens in a tube. The combination magnified objects three or four times. The government found the device too easy to copy and did not award a patent, but it voted a small award to Jacob Metius 1571-1635 and employed Hans Lipperhey 1570-1619 to make several binocular versions, for which he was well paid. Bild Button pfeil1a

As one of the researchers in the first hours of the telescope is one of Galileo, 1564-1642 which is available on the market glass - and bought himself lenses built instruments that eventually up to 33 times magnification possible. Be theories about the structure of the universe and the solar system ledto Inquisition and processes.

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The first Telescope 1608 made by Hans Lippershey

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Galilean Telescope

 A Galilean type refracting telescope. At the far left is the convex objective lens. It has a focal length f1 , the length at which it brings light from a distant object to a focus. The concave secondary lens (focal length f2) redirects the light towards the observer’s eye, where the lens in the eye itself - often not mentioned in descriptions like this! - brings it to a focus on the observer’s retina.

bild telescope galilean- first refractor Bild Button pfeil1a Galilei Telescope 1609

Adapted from an illustration in The History of the Telescope by H.C. King, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1955, drawn by Linda Wooliever.

Keplerian Telescope video Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler 1571-1630 and Planetary Motion - 1/2 9:47 Bild Button pfeil1a

 A Keplerian type refracting telescope. At the far left is the convex objective lens. It has a focal length f1 , the length at which it brings light from a distant object to a focus. The convex secondary lens (focal length f2) redirects the light towards the observer’s eye. The lens in the observer’s own eye then focuses it on the observer’s retina. In effect the observer is looking at an image that lies between the two lenses. This image is upside down ("inverted") compared with the original distant object.

Woodcut illustration of a 45 m (150 ft) focal length Keplerian astronomical refracting telescope built by Johannes Hevelius 1611-1687. From his book Machina coelestis (first part), published in 1673.

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Adapted from an illustration in The History of the Telescope by H.C. King, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1955, drawn by Linda Wooliever.

Newton's Telescope Design

At the left is a curved mirror AB, which brings light coming in from the right from some distant object to a focus(the mirror’s focal length is the distance to the focus). Along the way the light is intercepted by a small flat mirror CD and sent off to the side so the focus, where the image of the distant object is formed, is at E. A small lens at F is used as an eyepiece to magnify the image for the observer’s eye. The basic arrangement resembles the Keplerian telescope (see this diagram) except with a curved metal mirror instead of the glass objective lens.

bild telescope early-newton-scope-lg bild NewtonsTelescope 1672 bild newton 2 Isaak Newton 1643-1727

The first big Teleskop became in Irland / Birr Castle 1839 Bild Button pfeil1a

Leviathan of Parsonstown is the unofficial name of the Rosse six foot telescope. This is a historic reflecting telescope of 72 in (1.8 m) aperture, which was the largest telescope in the world from 1845 until the construction of the 100 in (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope in 1917. The Rosse six foot telescope was built by William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse on his estate, Birr Castle, at Parsonstown (now Birr in County Offaly, Ireland).

Parsons improved the techniques of casting, grinding and polishing large telescope mirrors from speculum metal, and constructed steam-powered grinding machines for parabolic mirrors. His 3 ft (90 cm) mirror of 1839 was cast in smaller pieces, fitted together before grinding and polishing; its 1840 successor was cast in a single piece. In 1842, Parsons cast his first 6 ft (1.8 m) mirror, but it took another five casts, before he had two ground and polished mirrors. Speculum mirrors tarnished rapidly; with two mirrors, one could be used in the telescope while the other was being re-polished. The telescope tube and supporting structure were completed in 1845.

bild telescope birr castle Bild Button pfeil1a  Restauration 1971

 "Visitors to Birr have sometimes commented on the absence of any biography of my great-grandfather and grandfather, remarking that the lack is curious in view of their contributions to scientific knowledge. I believe that two main reasons have accounted for this till the present time. First, they never kept the results of their observations to themselves; all discoveries were reported immediately to the relevant scientific publications of the day, and therefore became common knowledge. Secondly, some of their major deductions were so revolutionary that, in default of any outstanding proof, they were not generally accepted by other scientists of the time. It is only in quite recent years that the general correctness of my great-grandfather's conclusions, reached by his studies of the galaxies, has been proved. Similarly, my grandfather's estimate of the heat of the moon is now known to have been absolutely right."

The opening words by Laurence Michael, Sixth Earl of Rosse from the forward of " The Astronomy of Birr Castle " by Patrick Moore ", originally published in 1971.

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